Gardening🌷 Published April 23, 2024

This is the latest edition of the Google Trends newsletter, with a focus today on gardening.
For more insights and data storytelling on how the world is searching, follow us on Twitter @GoogleTrends and Instagram @googletrends. All data is correct at the time of writing.

Daily Quiz 

Which was searched more in the US in the past month?

Lights for plants or coffee for plants?


  • Search interest in monstera plant spiked over 1,000% in the past five years in the US

  • “plant identifier app” rose +650% in the past five years in the US

  • Search interest in “banana peel water for plants” doubled in the past year in the US

  • planting zones by zip code” searches are at a five year high in the US as well as “native plants by zip code

  • Oregon is the top state searching gardening in the past month, followed by Alaska

  • Backyard design searches reached an all-time high worldwide this April.

Top trending gardening searches

past month, US

  1. sustainable gardening techniques

  2. gardening activities for preschoolers

  3. gardening clothes for women

  4. gardening straw

  5. sleeves for gardening

Top “How to plant…”

past month, US

  1. Seeds

  2. Potatoes

  3. Bulbs

  4. Grass

  5. Trees

  6. Flowers

Top trending gardening tools

past month, US

  1. garden hoe

  2. lawn mower

  3. weed wacker

  4. Rake

  5. garden spade

Top searched garden ideas

past month, US

  1. fairy garden ideas

  2. rock garden ideas

  3. herb garden ideas

  4. small garden ideas

  5. flower garden ideas

MAP: pothos plant, pineapple plant, lavender plant, agave plant, aloe vera plant searches in the past year


MAP: gardening vs. woodworking searches in the past year

Daily Quiz Answer

% of both topics search interest combined

Answer: coffee for plants

Simon Rogers

Data Editor, Google


With Sabrina Elfarra

Taxes • Finances Published April 11, 2024

This is the latest edition of the Google Trends newsletter, with a focus today on tax season and finances.
For more insights and data storytelling on how the world is searching, follow us on Twitter @GoogleTrends and Instagram @googletrends. All data is correct at the time of writing.

Daily Quiz 

Which was searched more in the past month?

tax return deadline or tax return extension?


  • “how often does irs audit” and ”what triggers an irs audit” are breakout searches, past week, US

  • San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose CA was the top US metropolitan area searching for Taxable income over the past week

  • Searches for Tax advisor are currently at an all-time high in the US

  • Searches for “how to file a tax extension” spiked +550% in the US over the past month

GRAPH: Search interest in “file taxes for free” is currently at an all-time high in the US

Most searched “do i need to report … on my tax returns”

past week, US

  1. Form 5498

  2. Roth IRA

  3. Form 1095-C

  4. Form 1099-G

  5. 401k

Most searched “is it better …” on taxes

past week, US

  1. Is it better to file jointly or separately?

  2. Is it better to claim 1 or 0 allowances?

  3. Is it better to file single or head of household?

  4. Is it better to do taxes online or in person?

  5. Is it better to pay taxes now or later?

Financial Literacy

GRAPH: Search interest in IRA is currently at an all-time high this month and has surpassed 401(K) in the US

Most searched finance related “ how much do i need to …”

past week, US

  1. Retire

  2. Make to file taxes

  3. Buy a house

  4. Make to live comfortably

  5. Donate to get a tax deduction

Most searched “financial advisor for …”

past week, US

  1. Low income

  2. Debt

  3. Young adults

  4. Small business

  5. Federal employees


Daily Quiz Answer

% of both topics search interest combined

Answer: tax return deadline

Jenny Lee

Lead Google Trends Analyst

With Sabrina Elfarra

Success is the child of audacity

Indeed, audacity can be a catalyst for success

When we talk about audacity in this context, we refer to the willingness to take bold risks, to step outside of one’s comfort zone, and to pursue ambitious goals. It is about embracing challenges and pushing the boundaries of what is considered possible.

Audacity is often a common characteristic among successful individuals and entrepreneurs. They dare to think big and are not afraid of failure or rejection. By taking audacious actions, they open themselves up to opportunities that others might overlook or dismiss as too difficult or impossible.

When you are audacious, you are more likely to break through barriers and achieve remarkable things. Audacity enables you to overcome obstacles, confront fears, and persevere in the face of adversity. It allows you to challenge the status quo and make a meaningful impact in your chosen field.

However, it’s important to note that audacity alone is not sufficient for success. It must be accompanied by careful planning, resourcefulness, continuous learning, adaptability, and a willingness to iterate and improve upon your ideas. Success is a multifaceted outcome influenced by various factors, including hard work, opportunity, timing, and external circumstances.

In summary, while audacity can be a driving force behind success, it is just one piece of the puzzle. Combined with other essential qualities and actions, audacity can greatly increase your chances of achieving your goals and realizing your desired outcomes.

Here are some additional insights on the role of audacity in achieving success

Embracing calculated risks

Audacious individuals understand that taking risks is an inherent part of progress and growth. They are willing to step outside of their comfort zones and embrace calculated risks. They carefully assess the potential rewards and consequences, and if the potential benefits outweigh the risks, they are more likely to take the leap.

Overcoming fear and failure

Audacity involves confronting fears and embracing the possibility of failure. Successful people understand that failure is often a stepping stone to success. By being audacious, they are willing to face potential setbacks and learn from them, using failure as an opportunity for growth and improvement.

Challenging the status quo

Audacious individuals are not satisfied with the status quo. They question existing norms, challenge conventional wisdom, and seek innovative solutions. By daring to think differently, they can disrupt industries, introduce groundbreaking ideas, and create new opportunities.

Seizing opportunities

Audacity involves being proactive and seizing opportunities when they arise. Successful individuals have a keen eye for recognizing opportunities that others might overlook. They are not afraid to take advantage of favorable circumstances and capitalize on them to advance their goals.

Inspiring and motivating others

Audacious individuals often inspire and motivate those around them. Their bold actions and unwavering determination can ignite a sense of possibility and ambition in others. By leading by example, they can influence and rally a team or community toward a common goal.

Building resilience

Audacity requires resilience and perseverance. Success is rarely a linear path, and setbacks and obstacles are inevitable. Audacious individuals have the resilience to bounce back from failures, learn from their experiences, and keep pushing forward despite adversity.

Expanding horizons

Being audacious often involves thinking big and aiming high. By setting ambitious goals and pursuing them with determination, successful individuals expand their horizons and push their limits. This mindset enables them to achieve more than they initially thought possible.

It’s important to note that while audacity can be a powerful quality, it should be balanced with careful consideration, ethical behavior, and an understanding of potential consequences. Audacity without proper planning or disregard for others can lead to negative outcomes. Therefore, combining audacity with wisdom and good judgment is crucial for maximizing its potential for success.

Success Is The Child Of Audacity Lettering Card, Typographic Design. Vector Illustration. Клипарты, SVG, векторы, и Набор Иллюстраций Без Оплаты Отчислений. Image 121552704

The text is generated using artificial intelligence


Know that a penny saved is a penny earned

Emphasizes the value of saving money

It suggests that by saving even a small amount of money, you are essentially adding to your overall wealth and financial resources.

The proverb highlights the importance of frugality and the benefits of not wasting or spending money unnecessarily. It suggests that the act of saving money is equivalent to earning money because the money you save can be used for future expenses, investments, or to achieve financial goals.

By being mindful of your spending habits and making conscious efforts to save money, you can accumulate wealth over time. This proverb encourages individuals to be responsible with their finances, avoid unnecessary expenses, and develop a habit of saving for the future. It implies that even small amounts saved can contribute to long-term financial stability and prosperity.

Here are some additional insights regarding the proverb “A penny saved is a penny earned”

Importance of Financial Discipline

The proverb emphasizes the importance of financial discipline and responsible money management. It encourages individuals to prioritize saving and avoid frivolous spending. By being mindful of expenses and making conscious choices, you can allocate more money towards savings, which can lead to greater financial security in the long run.

Compound Interest

Saving money allows you to earn interest over time, particularly when deposited in interest-bearing accounts such as savings accounts or investments. The concept of compound interest comes into play, where the interest earned on your savings generates additional interest over time. By consistently saving, you not only preserve the initial amount but also benefit from the compounded growth.

Emergency Fund

Saving money enables you to build an emergency fund. Life is unpredictable, and unexpected expenses such as medical bills, home repairs, or job loss can arise. Having a financial safety net in the form of an emergency fund allows you to handle such situations without resorting to debt or financial stress. By saving a portion of your earnings, you create a buffer that provides peace of mind and financial stability.

Financial Goals and Investments

Saving money is an essential step towards achieving your financial goals. Whether it’s buying a home, starting a business, funding education, or planning for retirement, saving enables you to accumulate the necessary funds over time. Additionally, saving provides you with the means to invest in opportunities that can generate further wealth, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or other assets.

Developing Good Habits

The proverb encourages the development of good saving habits from an early age. Teaching children the value of saving and instilling responsible money management practices sets them on a path towards financial independence and success later in life. By cultivating a habit of saving, individuals can build a strong foundation for their future financial well-being.

Overall, the proverb “A penny saved is a penny earned” emphasizes the significance of saving money, not just as a means of accumulating wealth but also as a tool for financial security, opportunity, and achieving long-term goals. It encourages individuals to be mindful of their spending, prioritize saving, and make wise financial decisions that can lead to a brighter financial future.

The text is generated using artificial intelligence

Retro Tech Gadgets • Throwback Fashion 2024

This is the latest edition of the Google Trends newsletter, with a focus today on retro technology gadgets and throwback fashion.

Daily Quiz

What was searched more in the past week, “when is…”

Mother’s Day or Easter?

Retro Technology Gadgets

  • Point-and-shoot camera and the Canon PowerShot each reached a 5 year high in late December 2023

  • “how to make photos blurry” is the top trending “how to make photos…” over the past week in the US, and “how to make photos grainy” is among the top five trending

  • Tamagotchi and virtual pets reached a 5 year high in December 2023

  • Utah and Colorado are the only state searching for turntable more than cd player over the past month

GRAPH: Historically, portable cd players are searched more but record player surpassed it between 2020 to 2022

Top searched retro tech gadgets

past month, US

  1. Game console

  2. Record player

  3. Gameboy

  4. Handhelds

  5. Camera

Throwback Fashion

  • Indie sleaze reached an all time high in January 2024, and “alexa chung” is the top trending related search over the past week

  • “y2k” searches in the apparel category reached an all time high in November 2023

  • JNCO, the top trending company searched with “y2k” over the past 3 months, reached a five year high late December 2023

  • 90s fashion is the top trending topic searched with “theme party outfits” over the past week in the US

Top year/decade outfit searches

past month, US

  1. 2020 outfits

  2. 2014 outfits

  3. early 2000s outfits

  4. 1950s outfits

  5. 60s outfits

Most searched clothing prints

past month, US

  1. African print dress

  2. Leopard print shoes

  3. Cheetah print pants

  4. Cow print boots

  5. Cheetah print dress

Daily Quiz Answer

% of both topics search interest combined

Answer: Easter

Jenny Lee

Lead Google Trends Analyst

With Katie Seaton and Sabrina Elfarra

Retirement Age •Blue Collar Jobs •January2024

This is the latest edition of the Google Trends newsletter, with a focus today on retirement age and blue collar jobs.

Retirement Age

Top questions on retirement age

past week, US

  1. What is the full retirement age?

  2. What is the retirement age for social security?

  3. What is the full retirement age for someone born in 1958?

  4. What is the full retirement age for someone born in 1959?

  5. What is the retirement age in US?

Top searched “retirement age in…”

past week, US

  1. Retirement age in US

  2. Retirement age in California

  3. Retirement age in Texas

  4. Retirement age in France

  5. Retirement age in Florida

Top searched politicians on retirement age

past week, US

  1. Nikki Haley on retirement age

  2. Trump on retirement age

  3. DeSantis on retirement age

  4. Biden on retirement age

  5. Obama views on retirement age

Blue Collar Jobs

  • US search interest in “blue collar jobs” is currently higher than ever; Oklahoma and Kansas are the top states searching them over the past year

  • Agriculture and landscaping are the top trending industries searched with manual labor over the past year in the US

  • “gray collar jobs” and “gold collar jobs” are the top trending “…collar jobs” over the past year in the US

  • oil rig jobs” are the top trending “blue collar” jobs in the US over the past year, and reached a 5 year high during the first week of January 2024

  • trade school” is being searched more than ever before in the US this month; Wyoming and Nevada are the top states searching it

GRAPH: While US search interest in “public university” is historically higher than that of “trade school”, the two have been nearly tied over the past five years

Top trending “are…blue collar”

past year, US

  1. Are truckers blue collar?

  2. Are EMTs blue collar?

  3. Are delivery drivers blue collar?

  4. Are welders blue collar?

  5. Are nurses blue collar?

Top trending types of trade schools

past year, US

  1. Automobile technician trade school

  2. Ultrasound tech trade school

  3. Computer trade school

  4. Cosmetology trade school

  5. Diesel mechanic trade school

Top searched blue collar job salaries

past year, US

  1. Electrician salary

  2. HVAC technician salary

  3. Welder salary

  4. Wind turbine technician salary

  5. Plumber salary

Daily Quiz Answer

% of both topics search interest combined

Answer: Freaky Tales

Simon Rogers

Data Editor, Google@smfrogers

With Katie Seaton and Sabrina Elfarra


Electricity • Cold Temperatures • January2024

This is the latest edition of the Google Trends newsletter, with a focus today on electricity and cold temperatures.


MAP: Maine and Alaska are the only US states searching “electric bill” over “water bill” in the past month

Most searched “how much electricity does … use”

past week, US

  1. Space heater

  2. TV

  3. Refrigerator

  4. Gas furnace

  5. Electric blanket

Trending “… without electricity” questions

past week, US

  1. How to keep water trough from freezing without electricity

  2. How to keep cats warm without electricity

  3. How to heat a chicken coop without electricity

  4. How to warm your house without electricity

  5. How to keep a dog house warm without electricity

Cold temperatures

GRAPH: “why am I so cold” is currently being searched at a record high this month

Freezing related searches that have reached an all-time high this month

Top trending “can…freeze”

past week, US

  1. Can drain pipes freeze?

  2. Can water freeze in mid air?

  3. Can a toilet freeze in cold weather?

  4. Can propane freeze outside?

  5. Can gas freeze in the winter?

Top trending “is it safe to…in negative temperatures”

past week, US

  1. Is it safe to drive your car in negative temperatures?

  2. Is it safe to travel in negative temperatures?

  3. Is it safe to use the dishwasher in negative temperatures?

  4. Is it safe to fly in negative temperatures?

  5. Is it safe to get gas in negative temperatures?

Daily Quiz Answer

% of both topics search interest combined

Answer: window insulation

Jenny Lee

Lead Google Trends Analyst

With Sabrina Elfarra and Katie Seaton

Iowa Primary Caucus January 2024

This is the latest edition of the Google Trends newsletter, with a focus today on the Iowa Primary Caucus.

Trends data is an indication of curiosity in the subject or candidate. It should not be considered an indication of voter intent

See realtime Primary search Trends here

Top Trending questions about the caucus in Iowa

Past 7 days

  1. What is the Iowa caucus?

  2. How does the Iowa caucus work?

  3. Where do I caucus in Iowa?

  4. What time is the Iowa caucus?

  5. How to vote in Iowa caucus?

Top places searching for the caucus in Iowa

Past 7 days, metro areas

  1. Des Moines-Ames IA

  2. Cedar Rapids-Waterloo-Iowa City & Dubuque IA

  3. Sioux City IA

  4. Davenport IA-Rock Island-Moline IL

  5. Ottumwa IA-Kirksville MO

  6. Rochester MN-Mason City IA-Austin MN

  7. Omaha NE

Top searched issues in Iowa

January 2024 so far

  1. Abortion

  2. Crime

  3. Gas Prices

  4. Racism

  5. Energy

Daily Quiz Answer

% of both topics search interest combined

Simon Rogers

Data Editor, Google

Огляд ринку фрилансу в Україні в 2023 році

У 2023 році ринок фрилансу в Україні стабільно зростав: побільшало як фрилансерів з різними спеціалізаціями, так і замовників. Сервіс Freelancehunt розповів, які спеціалісти були найзатребуванішими та за які проєкти замовники були готові платити багато грошей.

За даними Freelancehunt, кількість замовників у 2023 році зросла на 14% проти 12% у 2022 році. Відповідно, зросла й кількість проєктів — на 18%. Зокрема, підвищився попит на послуги фрилансерів серед підприємців у сфері ІТ та онлайн-продуктів. Також зросли бюджети проєктів, що свідчить про стабільність і розвиток ринку фрилансу.

Найпопулярніші категорії замовлень

Як і в минулі роки, у 2023-му фрилансери найчастіше виконували проєкти в таких категоріях:

  • дизайн та арт — 28,9%;
  • робота з текстами — 19,7%;
  • програмування — 19,2%.

Також на 31,3% побільшало виконавців у категорії «Написання сценаріїв», на 29,2% — «Редактура та коректура». Дизайнери віддають перевагу дизайну мобільних застосунків, розробці шрифтів та створенню інфографіки.

Найбільш численні категорії фрилансерів за 2022 та 2023 роки

У «Програмуванні» частка від загальної кількості проєктів становить 32,4% проти торішніх 35,3%, у «Роботі з текстами» — 13% проти 15,1% у 2022. Частка «Дизайну та арту», навпаки, зросла з 22,8% до 23,7%.

У деяких категоріях частка проєктів зменшилася через стрімке зростання інших категорій, наприклад: «Аудіо та відео» (7,1%), «Аутсорсинг і консалтинг» (4,7%), «Просування» (11,7%).

Найпопулярніші категорії опублікованих проєктів на фрилансі

Читайте також: Як фрилансерам працювати з клієнтами з-за кордону?

Середні бюджети на проєкти

Паралельно зі зростанням кількості проєктів збільшуються й бюджети замовників рік до року:

  • дизайн та арт — на 18%;
  • просування — на 15,6%;
  • аудіо та відео — на 4,8%;
  • аутсорсинг і консалтинг — на 3,4%.
Бюджети на фрилансі за категоріями

Читайте також: Як замовники обирають фрилансерів та визначають бюджет проєкту: дослідження Freelancehunt

На які проєкти шукають програмістів

За даними Freelancehunt, цьогоріч помітно зростала кількість замовлень для фахівців з програмування. Найбільше замовлень було в таких напрямах:

  • Python — зростання бюджетів на 37,6%.
  • JavaScript — на 41,4%.
  • розроблення ботів — на 41,1%.
  • створення інтернет-магазинів— на 96,1%.
  • створення сайтів під ключ — на 39,9%.
  • розробка під Android — на 51,5%.
  • розробка під iOS — на 55,2%.

За прогнозами, в наступні кілька років підприємці та стартапи інвестуватимуть більше ресурсу в залучення розробників саме на проєктній основі. Це зумовлено глобальною економічною кризою, необхідністю оптимізувати витрати та явними перевагами проєктної співпраці.

Затребувані проєкти в дизайні 

У категорії дизайну зросли бюджети проєктів у таких категоріях:

  • розроблення логотипів — бюджет збільшився на 64%;
  • дизайн сайтів — на 63%;
  • розроблення фірмового стилю — на 91%.

Це свідчить про попит на відповідних фахівців.

Також затребуваними були фрилансери, що спеціалізуються на дизайні інтер’єру. Бюджети таких проєктів зросли на 153% рік до року. Це може бути пов’язано з тим, що у 2023 році більшість фахівців перейшли в онлайн-формат співпраці.

Читайте також: Тренди українського фрилансу-2023: прогноз від Freelancehunt

Попит на SEO-копірайтерів знизився

Як зазначають у Freelancehunt, у 2022 році копірайтери та перекладачі на фрилансі мали шалений попит. Підприємцям потрібні були тексти різного формату, щоб адаптуватися до нових реалій або з нуля перейти з офлайну в онлайн. Наразі більшість завдань, пов’язаних з текстами, підприємці закрили, тому попит на цих фахівців зменшився.

SEO-копірайтери на фрилансі також стали менш затребуваними, оскільки написання статей для пошукових систем все частіше делегують штучному інтелекту.

Зріс попит на обробку відео

Відеоконтент є трендом найближчих років. І вже зараз на Freelancehunt зросли бюджети на такі проєкти, як обробка відео, аудіо та відеомонтаж, відеореклама.

Яна Жданова

TOFU, MOFU, BOFU in SEO: How to Drive Revenue the Smart Way

Understanding TOFU, MOFU, BOFU is a foundational step in effective SEO.

In this article, you’ll learn what these terms mean. We’ll reveal our strategy playbook, which focuses on MOFU and BOFU.

And we’ll share a powerful framework to help you choose the right marketing and keywords to drive conversions.

But first, let’s cover some ABCs of TOFU, MOFU, and BOFU.

What’s a Sales Funnel?

A sales funnel is a mental conception of prospects’ stages, from initial awareness of a product to purchasing it.

Ever since an advertising pioneer conceived of the AIDA model (Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action) in 1898, marketers have used funnel concepts to organize their thinking and outreach.

The sales funnel concept is simple, whether it’s called the buyer’s journey or a purchase funnel.

As your target audience gains awareness of your brand, a subset of those prospects will go on to consider what you offer. And a smaller subset will become customers.

sales funnel diagram

In today’s digital world, prospects rarely follow a straight line from awareness to purchasing.

Nevertheless, the funnel concept is useful. It highlights the fact that prospects have different information needs depending on the stage they’re in.

So, how do TOFU, MOFU, BOFU relate to this?


TOFU, MOFU, BOFU are acronyms that refer to the sales funnel stages.

  • TOFU stands for Top of the Funnel
  • MOFU stands for Middle of the Funnel
  • BOFU stands for Bottom of the Funnel
sales funnel diagram with stages labeled tofu, mofu, bofu

These acronyms are popular with marketers and provide a short-hand way of referring to the funnel stages.

Understanding the Benefit of TOFU, MOFU, BOFU

The benefit of TOFU, MOFU, and BOFU is that it helps you think in a structured way about creating effective content for each stage.

  • TOFU: How can I attract my prospect’s attention and make a great 1st impression?
  • MOFU: How can I persuade my prospects to consider my products?
  • BOFU: How can I convince them our solution is best?

Remember: prospects in each stage have different information needs and mindsets.

And typically, the time spent exploring your brand increases, as prospects shift to the next stage.

For good reason, these stages have often been compared to a formal meal, which starts with light appetizers, proceeds to a soup and salad, and then culminates in the entrée.

Appetizers: TOFU content can be light and brief. Think “content snacks” on Facebook or general information.

Soup and salad: MOFU prospects want more substantial content. They’re interested in what makes your product special or the best. What problems does it solve?

EntréeIn the final BOFU stage, would-be buyers are willing to consume more information. They want to know all the details, including those related to transactions.

How Our Approach Differs

Many articles on TOFU, MOFU, and BOFU focus on recommending specific media formats.

For instance, some recommend ebooks, podcasts, print magazines, white papers, and infographics for TOFU. Workshops and classes, downloads, and interactive content are recommended for MOFU. And so on.

However, these recommendations don’t apply to many businesses. Can you imagine a plumber or hairdresser running a weekly podcast? Or publishing a print magazine?

All are time-consuming to create. And podcasts are time-consuming to listen to. Perhaps not the best idea for a TOFU audience!

Instead, our approach is to share principles behind creating content that matches users’ stage-specific needs, and converts and delivers ROI.

Once you understand these principles, you can create your own playbook.

As mentioned, we’ll also share our playbook because it includes some evergreen principles that can benefit most small businesses.

Strategic Considerations

Before we dive into our playbook, there are 2 concepts we need to cover: channels and keywords.

Your choice of channels and keywords will dictate your success.

Principle 1: Match the Channel to the Stage

In addition to creating content suited to each stage, you’ll need to deliver that content via a marketing channel that’s effective for reaching that stage.

A “marketing channel” means type of marketing.

  • SEO is a marketing channel
  • Email is a marketing channel
  • Social media is a marketing channel

So, how do you know which channels work best for the different stages?

Thankfully, marketing visionary Avinash Kaushik has sorted this out.

Drawing on his experience consulting for Fortune 500 brands across the globe, Avinash Kaushik reveals which marketing channels are most effective for the different stages.

These insights are contained in his See – Think – Do framework.

Here’s our version below, simplified.

Channel Diagram (Simplified version)

tofu, mofu, bofu diagram with see think do framework

The first thing you’ll notice about this framework is that Kaushik renames the consideration stages from the prospects’ vantage point.

  • Awareness becomes “See”
  • Consideration becomes “Think”
  • Conversion becomes “Do”

Then he matches each stage to the marketing channels most effective for reaching that stage.

For instance,

  • SEO is effective for all stages
  • YouTube works well for the Think (Consideration) stage
  • Email works well for Think (Consideration) and Do (Conversion) stages

Now, if you’re wondering how advertising fits into this, here’s a diagram including ad types.

Channel Diagram (Includes Advertising)

tofu, mofu, bofu diagram with see-think-do framework included

Now that we understand how to pick an effective marketing channel let’s turn our attention to choosing keywords.

Principle 2: Target Keyword Intent

You’re probably already aware that creating content based on a target keyword is a best practice in SEO.

But did you know you can find keywords to match each consideration stage?

Keyword research software, like Ahrefs and Semrush, labels keywords according to the perceived intent of the user.

  • I is for Informational
  • N is for Navigational
  • C is for Commercial
  • T is for Transactional

Informational (TOFU) keywords tend to be short, broad, and hard to rank for. The intent of the searcher is often not clear. They are in the initial stages of gathering information.

Examples of informational keywords are “SEO,” “literature,” and “planets.”

Navigational keywords typically contain a website or business name. Examples are “Home Depot credit card login,” “In-n-Out Burger,” or “Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.”

Commercial (MOFU) keywords signal some buying intent on the part of the searcher. They often compare products, read reviews, or search for “how-to” content.

Examples of commercial keywords are: “best SEO plugins,” “what is the best coating for metal roof?” and “Geico vs. Progressive.”

Transactional (BOFU) keywords indicate the searcher is on the brink of buying. They may seek booking, price, or shipping information, guarantees, or discounts. Or the keyword may include specific product attributes.

Examples of transactional keywords include: “Korean tacos near me,” “book a cruise from Tampa,” and “American-made M65 field jacket.”

semrush transactional bofu keyword example
Above: Semrush shows that this highlighted keyword signals Transactional (BOFU) intent and is “Easy” to rank for.

Remember that only Commercial (MOFU) and Transactional (BOFU) keywords signal buying intent.

Framework for Success

Now, let’s pull all this information together in a concise table.

Stage See
Marketer terms TOFU MOFU BOFU
Keywords to target Informational Commercial Transactional
Effective channels to use SEO
Social media Facebook Ads
Display ads
Display ads Retargeting ads
PPC ads
Display ads Retargeting ads
PPC ads

So how do we put this into action?

MOFU (Middle of the Funnel) and BOFU (Bottom of the Funnel) Strategy

Our growth playbook focuses on creating MOFU and BOFU content. That means most of our articles and YouTube videos are based on a MOFU (Commercial) or BOFU (Transactional) keyword.

While these keywords (topics) typically attract less traffic than Informational keywords, the traffic has commercial intent.

Not surprisingly, the conversion rates and sales are highest for MOFU and BOFU content.

And typically, these keywords are easier to rank for than Informational keywords. That means better ROI on your marketing spend.

These 2 tutorials will walk you through finding MOFU (Commercial) and BOFU (Transactional) keywords that are easy to rank for.

As you’ll see in the tutorials, Semrush labels each keyword with one of the following descriptors.

  • Very easy
  • Easy
  • Possible
  • Difficult
  • Hard
  • Very hard

If a keyword you research turns out to be “Hard” to rank for, simply click the Keyword Magic button in Semrush and you’ll get hundreds if not thousands of easy variants to choose from.

If your website is new, or you aren’t ranking for much, it’s crucial to choose keywords that are rated Very easy, Easy, or Possible.

Now, let’s look at some MOFU and BOFU content examples. What type of content meets the needs of prospects in these stages?

MOFU and BOFU Content Examples

Remember, searchers using Commercial (MOFU) or Transactional (BOFU) keywords vary in buying intent.

They may have a vague, or thorough, idea of the problem they’re trying to solve. And they search for “how-to” content in order to solve that problem.

Using content to help prospects solve problems, will drive sales and revenue.

Keep in mind that MOFU searchers compare products or services. They’re trying to make up their mind about which is best.

Here are the 3 types of MOFU/BOFU content we create.

  1. Comparisons
  2. How-tos
  3. Showcases

Let’s look at each one.

1. Comparisons: Moving Decision-Making Forward

Comparison articles are straightforward: they compare one solution to one or more alternatives.

A popular format for comparisons is the “versus” article. The keyword will be a comparison of 2 brands or types of product, like “Geico vs. Progressive” or “PandaDoc vs. DocuSign.”

Here are some examples of “versus” articles.

A key benefit of creating “vs.” articles that feature your business name, is your brand will show up in searches for your competitors.

This can help you get traction and capture market share from those competitors.

mofu comparison review article example

In the example above, SignHouse compared their product to the better-known PandaDoc and Docusign.

As a result, the SignHouse article appears in searches for “pandadoc vs docusign” and searchers discover there’s a low-cost alternative to those more prominent brands.

Additionally, SignHouse has a page that compares their product to DocuSign. The page is ranking #1 for “docusign vs signhouse.”

mofu comparison review example

You can also compare services or products you offer, as we see in this article.

2. How-Tos: Solving Problems

How-tos are very popular, and they’re big money-makers.

To create a how-to, show how your product or service solves a prospect’s problem.

To help with brainstorming, create a list of verbs to add after “How to” such as:

  • How to Add . . .
  • How to Choose . . .
  • How to Create . . .
  • How to Find . . .
  • How to Fix . . .

Once you’ve drafted a list, consider running those keywords through a research tool like Semrush or Ahrefs. Verify that the keywords are easy to rank for and have Commercial or Transactional intent.

In addition to publishing how-tos on our blog and on YouTube, we recently began publishing SEO case studies. These are all “how-tos” and feature small businesses that have achieved impressive traffic growth.

Examples of how-tos from our business and other websites:

3. Showcases: Listicle Mini-Reviews

Our “showcase” articles are listsicles that describe our solution and our competitors’.

Each product is reviewed briefly with a focus on key differentiators.

Examples of showcase articles from our site and others:

Showcases often include numbers in the title as well as adjectives like “best,” “easy,” “top,” or “budget.”

You’ve probably noticed that affiliate marketing sites use this tactic too.

Comparison tables are popular in both “versus” articles and showcases. If you include a table, narrow the feature list to avoid overwhelming users. And highlight differences.

Listing pros and cons is another way to help readers choose. As with comparison tables, keep these points to a minimum. Why? Site visitors often scan articles, rather than reading them word-for-word. Highlighting a few key points supports this scanning behavior.

Once you’ve created MOFU and BOFU content, you’ll be ready to deliver that content via an effective channel, like SEO and email marketing.

MOFU and BOFU Channels

Effective channels for MOFU and BOFU are SEOemail marketing, and YouTube.

Display ads, retargeting ads, and PPC ads are also effective, but not every business has an ad budget.

SEO and YouTube: Our MOFU-BOFU playbook focuses on publishing SEO-optimized articles on our website and creating YouTube videos.

Email marketing: We also promote that content via email marketing and run sales campaigns.

Remember that we said MOFU prospects are interested in reviews? This is a reason why we include customer testimonials in our sales emails.

Keep in mind, content that doesn’t rank, can still generate revenue via email marketing.

PPC ads: We also do a small amount of PPC (pay-per-click) search advertising.

As you can see from the diagram above, the channels we’ve selected are among those described by Kaushik as most effective for reaching MOFU and BOFU prospects.

TOFU (Top of the Funnel) Strategy

We left TOFU to the end because our playbook emphasizes MOFU and BOFU. But we certainly do create content based on TOFU (Informational) keywords. And you probably will too.

Brand awareness is the goal of TOFU content. These prospects are finding out about your brand for the 1st time. Keep your TOFU content brief but appealing.

Another helpful analogy for creating TOFU content is meeting people at a party.

  • You want to make a great first impression.
  • And you don’t need to say much.
  • Great visuals are memorable.

Do keep in mind that Informational (TOFU) keywords tend to be broad and hard to rank for. So be careful. It’s easy to waste resources creating content that never ranks.

(Learn how to find keywords that are easy to rank for.)

TOFU Content Examples

To come up with TOFU content ideas, think about your broadest prospect pool. What overlaps are there between what you offer and questions or interests they might have?

Answer Questions

Questions are popular TOFU topics. Many of our informational articles are based on question keywords, like: What is a Plugin? or What is Indexing?

Definition articles are common: these take a term (like “cool jazz”) and explain it. Definition articles are similar to “What is” content.

General How-Tos

In addition, some how-to keywords are labeled in Semrush as Informational (TOFU).

Examples are “how to learn SEO” or “how to tie a tie.”

These how-to keywords tend to be less specific than those that are labeled Commercial.

In addition, some TOFU articles take a light approach to attract readers. An example is: 5 Creative (and Hilarious) Content Examples Written by AI which targets the Informational (TOFU) keyword “written by AI.”

Statistics and Trivia

Statistics articles are also popular along with short trivia-based content or anecdotes.

Here are some examples of TOFU content:

masterclass cool jazz tofu content example
Above: This appetizer-style overview of cool jazz is designed to attract a TOFU audience. The goal: Attract people interested in cool jazz who might also want to take music classes via the MasterClass website.

TOFU Channels

SEO and social media are effective channels for raising brand awareness, which is the goal of TOFU.

Facebook is widely used to boost brand awareness. X (formerly Twitter) is popular with certain niches like SaaS and food trucks. Feel free to experiment with these, and other social media platforms.

Effective TOFU advertising channels include Facebook Ads, display ads, and, to some extent, PPC ads.

Of these, Facebook Ads are perhaps the most effective for growing a community around your brand. That’s because you can build custom audiences based on interests, then interact with your prospects.

For example, say you sell cowboy hats. You can build a Facebook Ads audience of people who’ve liked pages about rodeos, country music, westerns, the Cowboy Channel, and cowboy boots.

facebook prca prorodeo page
Above: You can use Facebook Ads to target users who have liked specific pages, like this rodeo page.

The ultimate goal is to entice your Facebook fans to visit your website so they can read your TOFU content and you can capture their contact information.

On-Page SEO: Essential for Ranking and Revenue

After creating your TOFU, MOFU, BOFU content, you don’t want to leave anything to chance. This is where on-page SEO comes in.

This simple habit will transform your SEO results.

Optimizing your page helps Google understand it better and rank it for relevant keywords.

This is why on-page SEO is the crucial last step for content marketing success. And you’re about to learn how easy it is to do.

All in One SEO: An Automated SEO Assistant

You can optimize your page for better Google rankings by using a WordPress plugin.

We recommend using All in One SEO (AIOSEO). This beginner-friendly WordPress plugin takes a lot of the guesswork out of SEO.

aioseo homepage

With over 3 million users and thousands of 5-star reviews on, AIOSEO is an established plugin with a track record of small business success.

There are 3 features in particular that will help your TOFU–MOFU-BOFU content rank.

  1. Automated On-Page SEO checks: AIOSEO will analyze your pages and provide specific actions steps to improve your SEO. As you act on the recommendations, your SEO score goes up.
  2. Schema Generator: Easily add schema markup to pages so Google understands your page better and can rank it for relevant queries.
  3. AI-Powered Link Assistant: Speed up internal linking, which can improve the rankings of your most important product or service pages. (Internal linking is one of the most overlooked SEO tactics.)
aioseo link assistant dashboard
Above: View of AIOSEO’s Link Assistant dashboard.

These additional AIOSEO features also help small businesses stand out.

  • Sitemap Generator: Get 100% maintenance-free sitemaps created according to Google’s recommendations.
  • Local SEO: Small businesses can get a headstart on ranking by using this simple feature.
  • Rank Tracking: See how you’re ranking in Google without leaving WordPress. This SEO Statistics feature is an integration with Google Search Console.
  • Google Algorithm Updates: See the impact of Google algorithm changes on your content.
aioseo google algoritm tracking

TOFU, MOFU, BOFU Strategy Review

We covered a lot, didn’t we? How about a quick review?

Here’s a final version of the table.

Stage See
Marketer terms TOFU MOFU BOFU
Keywords to target Informational Commercial Transactional
Effective channels to use SEO
Social media Facebook Ads
Display ads
Display ads Retargeting ads
PPC ads
Display ads Retargeting ads
PPC ads
Content types Content “snacks”
“What is” (definitions)
General How-Tos
  • Use Semrush or Ahrefs to find and pick TOFU (Informational), MOFU (Commercial), and BOFU (Transactional) keywords that are easy to rank for. (Focus mostly on MOFU-TOFU keywords.)
  • Make each keyword the main topic of a new content piece.
  • Create light “information snacks” for TOFU; comparisons, how-tos, or showcase listsicles for MOFU and BOFU.
  • Optimize articles for SEO.
  • Use email marketing to promote content and earn sales.
    • Use testimonials to convince MOFUs.
    • Include countdown timers and special discounts to entice BOFUs.
  • Use SEO to target all stages, social media to target TOFU, and YouTube to target MOFU.


To be effective, do I need to use a lot of marketing channels?

We recommend that small businesses keep their marketing channels to a minimum. It’s easy to think “more” is better, but it’s the effectiveness of the channel that matters, more than the quantity of channels.

As mentioned, we focus primarily on SEO, YouTube, and email. And this has been more than sufficient to drive consistent growth.

How do TOFU, MOFU, and BOFU relate to topic clusters?

Since MOFU and BOFU keywords tend to be easier to rank for, creating cluster pages based on such keywords is an effective way to build topic clusters. Additionally, the main pillar page may be TOFU, but ranking for the subtopic pages will help the pillar page rank.

Learn more in our guidance on topic clusters.

What is multi-channel marketing automation and how does it fit in with TOFU, MOFU, BOFU?

Multi-channel marketing automation uses software to create customized messaging based on how users interact with it.

For example, you can use Ortto (formerly called Autopilot) to build communication sequences that use Facebook, SMS, email, print postcards, in-app messaging and more.

The next message in any sequence is determined by the user’s behavior.

This is an effective way to provide a seamless CX (customer experience), where each message fits the interests (and behavior) of the user.

This approach can have a powerful impact on moving prospects to the next stage of the sales funnel. And platforms like Ortto typically include lead scoring, which enables you to prioritize leads most likely to buy.

ortto drag-and-drop canvas
Above: A close-up of the Ortto canvas.

Resources on Content Marketing and SEO

After TOFU, MOFU, and BOFU . . .

We’ve shared guiding principles so you can create your own TOFU – MOFU – BOFU playbook.

Once you know how to think in a structured way about your audience’s consideration stages, you have a blueprint to work from.

Two final suggestions:

  1. Keep it simple: It’s easy to complicate things.
  2. Experiment: Try different things; see what works.

And remember, SEO is effective for reaching prospects in all stages.

Next, explore the role of backlinks in driving SEO results. And learn how internal link building is connected to rankings.

To learn more about search engine optimization, subscribe to our YouTube Channel. Each week, we publish new step-by-step tutorials there.

And follow us on X (formerly Twitter)LinkedIn, or Facebook to stay in the loop.

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